محمد انور ایّوبی
قارئین ! تاریخ میں آج بھی بہت سے واقعات اور حالات کا تعین ہونا باقی ہے۔ بہت سارے مبہم واقعات آ ج بھی تاریخ کے اوراق میں موجود ہیں۔ زیر نظر کتاب ایسے ہی ایک غیر واضح شخصیت کے کوائف بیان کرتی ہے۔
موصوف نے مغل بادشاہ اکبر اور ان کی بیوی جودھا بائی کے تعلق سے تاریخ میں درج مختلف تضاد کا تجزیہ کیا ہے۔ ہم آج تک یہی سنتے آئے ہیں کہ جودھا بائی، اکبر کی بیوی اور سلیم (جہانگیر )کی ماں تھی۔ کیونکہ ہمیں درسی نصابوں میں یہی پڑھایا گیا ہے۔ لیکن مصنف نے تاریخ کے ان مختلف پہلوؤں کو اجاگر کرنے کی کوشش کی ہے جن سے اکبر اعظم اور جودھا بائی کے رشتے کے ضمن میں ایک نئی تصویر سامنے آئی ہے۔ موصوف نے اردو، مراٹھی، فارسی اور انگریزی کے مشہور مورخین کے حوالوں سے یہ بات واضح کرنے کی کوشش کی ہے کہ تاریخ میں اکبر اور جودھا بائی کے رشتے کے مابین کافی تضاد پایا جاتا ہے۔
ان زبانوں کے مورخین نے واضح طور پر جودھا بائی کو اکبر کی بہو تسلیم کیا ہے۔ تاریخ کے انہی دلچسپ پہلوؤں کی مصنف نے کافی گہرائی سے تحقیق کی ہے۔ اور مورخین کے درمیان کے اختلاف کو واضح کیا ہے۔ کچھ تاریخ داں مانتے ہیں کہ جودھا بائی اکبر کی بہو تھی، اور کچھ مورخین کہتے ہیں کہ جودھا بائی نام کی دو خواتین تھیں۔ ایک اکبر کی بیوی اور دوسری اس کی بہو تھی۔ ناچیز کی رائے میں یہی خیال قرین قیاس ہے۔ ایک ہی جیسے ناموں کی مشابہت ہو سکتی ہے۔ ہم اور آپ اس کا مشاہدہ ہمارے سماج میں بھی کر سکتے ہیں۔
مصنف نے کسی بھی مورخ کی دلیل پر حتمی رائے دینے سے گریز کرتے ہوئے یہ قارئین پر چھو ڑ دیا ہے وہ خود اس بات کا فیصلہ کریں کہ مذکورہ تینوں دعووں میں سے کون سا دعویٰ صحیح ہے ؟
آخر میں ، میں محقق شیخ انور سر کو ان کی اس دلچسپ تحقیق کے لئے عمیق ِ دل سے مبارک باد پیش کرتا ہوں ؎
اللہ کرے زور قلم اور زیادہ
اعجاز احمد انصاری
رانی جودھا اکبر کی بیوی یا بہو
‘The Emperor Akbar’ کا مصنف Frederik Augustus لکھتا ہے :
Vol I Page 147/148 (حوالہ نمبر ۱ ؍ کا اصل متن)
"The Emperor Akbar was near Kalali, on his way to the shrine of his patron saint Mueenuddin Chishti, it was reported to him, on 24th January 1562, that Bihari Mall was being hard pressed by Sharfudin Husain, who at the instigation of Soja, a nephew of the Rajah, was trying to posses himself of Amber.
At the Emperor’s request, Behari Mall and his whole family attended upon him at Sangjarir and were most honourably received.
The Rajah expressed the wish to enter the royal service and to strengthen the ties of friendship by giving his daughter in marriage to Akbar. Both of which desires were granted without delay.
The Rajputni is probably the mother of Akbar’s eldest son Saleem (Jahangir). Having regard to this circumstance or perhaps by express by order of Emperor, Mohammaden Historians mentioned her by the title of honour ‘Maryam-Uzzamani’ although it is against their custom to name even imperial consorts when of Hindu race.”
‘Discovery of India’
پنڈت جواہر لال نہرو اپنی اس شہرۂ آفاق تاریخ کے صفحہ نمبر ۲۵۷؍ پر رقم طراز ہیں :
( حوالہ نمبر ۲؍ کا اصل متن )
” He married Rajput princess and his son and successor, Jahangir, was thus a half Mughal and half Rajput Hindu.
Jahangir’s son Shah-Jahan, was also the son of Rajput mother, thus racially this Turk-Mongol dynasty became far more Indian than Turk-Mongol.”
Glimpses of the world History
پنڈت جواہر لال نہرو اپنی اس دوسری کتاب میں صفحہ نمبر ۳۰۸ ؍ پر لکھتے ہیں :
(حوالہ نمبر ۳ ؍ کا اصل متن )
"He (Akbar) married himself a girl of Noble Rajput family, Later he married his son to a Rajput girl also.”
مراٹھی انسا ئیکلو پیڈیا کی جلد نمبر ۷ صفحہ نمبر ۵۹۹؍ پر جودھا بائی کو اکبر کے ساتھ بتایا گیا ہے دونوں کا ذکر اس طرح ہے : (حوالہ نمبر ۷ ؍ کا اصل متن )
A NEW HISTORY OF INDIA
ڈاکٹر ایشوری پرساد اپنی کتاب ’A NEW HISTORY OF INDIA‘میں بیان کرتے ہیں : (حوالہ نمبر ۱۰ ؍ کا اصل متن )
۱۰) Akbar the Great ‘ Chapter XXIII Page157’
"Early in his reign Akbar, who aimed at the sovereignty of the whole of India, saw that his dream could not be realised without the support of Hindus. The Rajputs were their political leaders and their conciliation was necessary for the fulfillment of his schemes. With this end in view, he readily accepted the proposal of Raja Bharmal of Amer to marry his daughter to him (1562). The Raja’s family was honoured and his son and grand son Bhagwandas and Man Singh were appointed to high posts in the empire.”
اب کچھ اقتسابات جو دنیا کے مشہور انسا ئیکلو پیڈیا Wikipediaسے حاصل ہوئے ہیں :
(حوالہ نمبر۱۴ ؍ کا اصل متن )
"It is common belief that Jodhabai was the main wife of Akbar named ‘Mariam-uz-Zamani’ was Jahangir’s mother.
One of Akbar’s minor wives was ‘Jodhibibi’ daughter of Rao Mal Deo of Jodhpur from a concubine Tipu Paswan. She married Akbar in 1581.
There was another Jodhabai wife of Jahangir who was the daughter of Raja Udai Singh of Jodhpur.”
مریم الزمانی کون تھی؟
(حوالہ نمبر ۱۵؍ کا اصل متن )
"Mariam-uz-Zamani (born Rajkumri Hira Kunwari daughter of Raja Behari Mall, Raja of Amber, India ) was a Rajput Princess, the senior wife of Akbar, married in 1562, and mother of Jahangir. Her tomb built in 1611 A.D. is on Delhi Agra highway, near Fatehpur Sikri.”
انسائیکلو پیڈیا ‘ Wikipedia’ کا ایک اور دلچسپ اقتباس پڑھئے اور غور کیجئے کہ تاریخ میں کتنے متنازعہ بیانات شامل کر دئیے گئے ہیں۔ تاریخ کا ایک طالب علم کن کن باتوں پر یقین کرے ؟ (حوالہ نمبر ۱۶ ؍ کا اصل متن )
"The king of Ambar’s daughter ‘HiraKunwari’ became Akbar’s queen. She took the name Jodhabai and was the mother of prince Salim, who later became the Mughal emperor Jahangir.”
شہزادہ سلیم (جہانگیر ) کی شادی کا ذکر ‘Wikipedia’میں کچھ اس طرح ہے :
(حوالہ نمبر ۱۷ ؍ کا اصل متن )
"Salim was made a Mansabdar of ten thousand (Das Hazar), the highest Military rank of the empire, after the emperor. He commanded independently, a regiment in Kabul campaign in 1585, at the time of his betrothal to his cousin Man Bai, daughter of Bhagwan Das of Amber. Bhagwan Das (son of Behari Mal) was the brother of Akbar’s wife Mariam-uz-Zamani Rajkumari Hira Kunwari.
The marriage with Man Bai took place on February 13, 1585. Thereafter, Salim was allowed to marry, in quick succession, a number of accomplished girls from the Mughal and Rajput families. One of his favourite wives was a Rajput Princess, known as Jagat Gosain, who gave birth to Prince Khurram the future Shah Jahan, the successor of Jahangir.
Jahangir married his eighteenth and last wife the extremely beautiful and intelligent Mehru-un-Nisa in May 1611. She was the widow of Sher Afgan. Mehr-un-Nisa was given the title of Nur Jahan afterward.”
Did Jodha Bai really exist?
(حوالہ نمبر ۱۸؍ کا اصل متن )
It is claimed by some historians that Jodha was not Akbar’s wife, as is shown in the film.
The great Mughal emperor Akbar had three historians during his rule who recorded the history of their time — Abul Fazal wrote the Akbar Nama, Abdul Qadir Badayuni wrote the Muntakhabuttawarikh and Nizamuddin Ahmad (also called Nizamuddin Bakhshi) wrote the Tabqat-i-Akbari. None of them have mentioned ‘ Jodha Bai; in their books.
"These books were written in Persian and there is no mention of Queen Jodha Bai. There is no proof of her history,” says Dr. S M Azizuddin Husain, history teacher at the Department of History, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi [Imaes[
SO how did Jodha Bai come about?
” In the Akbarnama, there is a mention of Akbar marrying a Rajput princess of Amber but her name is not Jodhaa,” says historian and director of the Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Imtiaz Ahmad in Patna. She is referred to as Mariam Zamani (Mary of the Age). This is a title and not a name. It further says that Mariam Zamani is a title referred to the lady who gave birth to Prince Salim, who became Emperor Jahangir. But the name Jodha is not mentioned anywhere.
"The name Jodha first came up in the 19th century when Colonel Tod, a Britisher, and not a professional historian, mentioned Jodha Bai in his book Annals and Antiquity of Rajasthan [Images], "Ahmad adds. "Colonel Tod depended on bardic literature (folk literature) of Rajputs and he mentioned Jodha Bai for the first time here.”
Interestingly , the royal family of Jodhpur [Images] openly stated that Jodha Bai did exist, and that she married Emperor Akbar.
At the music launch of Jodha Akbar [Images], Padmini Devi of the Jaipur royal family acknowledged the fact that Jodha existed and it was this matrimonial union that brought an alliance between Mughal and Rajputs.
When told about the incident, Dr. Hussain said, "If that is the case then the royal family should publish thier history and share the information with historians.”
Meanwhile, a section of the rajput community have thier own version of who Jodha was, and want to ban the film from releasing in Rajasthan.
Lokendra Singh Kalvi, who heads a Rajput outfit called Sri Rajput Karni Sena, says "None of Akbar’s 34 wives were named Johda Bai. Akbar married the former maharaja of Amber, Bharmal’s elder daughter Karak Bai alias Heer Kumar in Fatehpur Sikri on Feburary 6, 1562. Prince Salim was born in 1569. Jodha Bai was the daughter of Motraja Udai Singh and she would have been three years younger than Salim and hence, in no way could she have been his mother.”
Quoting Emperor Akbar’s biography, and a National Council of Educational Research and Training’s Class XI history book on medieval India [Images] by Prof. Satish Chandra, Kalvi claims Jodha was not Akbar’s wife, as depicted in the film. According to him, Jodha was married to Salim, Akbar’s son.
"Thus, she was Akbar’s daughter-in-law. So depicting Jodha as Akbar’s wife is not tolerable,” Karni said.
Former Chairman of University Grants Commission and noted historian Satish Chandra stated that Gowarikar’s film could, at best, be described as a work of fiction, and not a document of history .
According Chandra , the name Jodha was given to her because she came from the state of Jodhpur.
Asked why there no protests when Mughal-e-Azam was released in India , and Jodha Bai (Durga Khote) was shown as Akbar’s (Prithviraj Kapoor) wife , Chandra says, "Those days, resources were limited. Now, the historians can find out the truth and bring it to light. In any case, the film was based on fiction, as there was no character called Anarkali. who had an affair with Salim,” he pointed out.
Who is Jodha Bai. Akbar’s queen or daughter-in-law?
(حوالہ نمبر ۱۹ ؍ کا اصل متن )
As per historical facts none called Jodha has ever been associated to Mughal King Akbar. The name comes mostly from the Bollywood movies but history admits that a Hindu princess called Hira Kunwari was the wife of Akbar.
In history it is admitted that Mughals who came to India from Mongolia and Turkey fought with the local Hindu Rajput kings and when they were not successful in winning over the king they made relations with the Kings and married with their daughters.
It was Hira Kunwari Daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber who married to the King Akbar as a political contract and out of the main three wives of Akbar, Hira was only one who gave birth to a son to take over the dynasty to the further generations. Though many still suspect that the only son of Akbar called Salim was not of Hira, the Hindu queen.
Akbar after taking over the rule over major northern parts in India was considered to be a very powerful king and created the religion called Din-E-Ilahi. He allowed his Hindu wife to practice Hinduism after he made his own religion.
Hira Kunwari or more popularly named Jodha to today’s genre was the lady who actively participated in the ruling of Akbar and she initiated the pilgrims to Macca and arranged ships for it.
(حوالہ نمبر۲۰ ؍ کا اصل متن )
Several historians claim that Akbar’s Rajput wife was never known as "Jodha Bai "during the Mughal period. According to Professor Shirin Moosvi, a historian of Aligarh Muslim University, neither the Akbarnama (a biography of Akbar commissioned by Akbar himself), nor any historical text from the period refer to her as Jodha Bai.
Moosvi notes that the name "Jodha Bai ” was first used to refer to Akbar’s wife in the 18th and 19th centuries in historical writing. In Tuzk-e-Jahngiri, she is referred as Mariam Zamani, who was, by some accounts, a Christian Armenian.
According to historian Imtiaz Ahmad, the director of the Khuda Bakhsh Oriantal Public Library in Patna, the name "Jodha ” was used for Akbar’s wife for the first time by Lieutenant-Colonel James Tod, in his book Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. According to Ahmad, Tod was not a professional historian. N R Farooqui claims that Jodha Bai was not the name of Akbar’s Rajput queen, it was the name of Jahangir’s Rajput wife.
Jodha Bai: Akbar’s wife or Daughter -in-Law?
(حوالہ نمبر ۲۱ ؍ کا اصل متن )
Who was Jodha Bai? If she existed at all, it was as Akbar’s daughter-in-law (she was married to Jahangir) and not his wife as claimed by rajpus of Rajasthan after seeing portrayal of Jadha Bai as wife of Akbar in Ashutosh Gowarikar’s upcoming movie-Jodha-Akbar. Hritik Roshan pays Akbar and Aishwarya Rai plays Jodha Bai in Gowarika’s Jodha-Akbar.
If we go by folktales and K Asif’s classic ‘Mughal-e-Azam’, Jodha Bai was Amber ruler Raja Bharmal’s daughter and Akbar’s wife. Here’s what some of the country’s top historians have to say. The historians are divided over name not the person. Most of them agree that Akbar married the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber but differ over her name. She is said to be born on October 1, 1542 as the daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber and aunt of Man Singh, who later on became one of the nine jewels (Navaratnas) in the court of Akbar. In 1562, she married Akbar the Great and was 22 days elder than him. She was among the three ‘chief queens’ of Emperor Akbar. His first queen was the childless, Ruqaiyya Begum and his second wife was Salima Sultan, widow of Bairam Khan. Akbar’s most trusted general. Jodha Bai was allowed to practice Hinduism freely. She is said to have been polititically involved in the court until Nur Jahan became empress. According to Thomas Roe, She was involved in active sea trade and owned a ship named Ramiti which carried pilgrims to Macca.
In 1586, Jodha Bai arranged a marriage of her son, Prince Saleem (later Jahangir), to Man Singh’s sister Princess Manmati , who was the mother of Prince Khusro. Jodha Bai died in 1611. As per her last wishes a vav or step well was constructed by Jahangir.
Abul ‘Fazal’s Ain-e-Akbari’ and ‘Akbarnama’ have no reference to Jodha Bai. The name also doesn’t find mention in Jahangir’s memoirs. Similarly, there is no mention of Jodha Bai in Badauni’s ‘Munthakhib-al-Tawarikh’. At Aligarh Muslim university, there has been no reference shown in documents to Jodha Bai but still there is a mention of Jodha Bai in the works of K.L. Khurana, A.L. Shreevastav and Munni Lal and many other historians. In ‘Kachchawon ka Itihas’ she is mentioned by the name of Harika Bai. In another book she is called Manmati and Shahi Bai.
Mughal Emperors had many wives, some to consolidate political alliances and others for physical needs. Apart from this, some historians have a conflicting opinion. Historian Jadunath Sarkar says, "Uday Singh of Jaipur married his daughter to Jahangir. Her name was Mira Bai but she was also known as Jodh Bai and not Jodha Bai.” Asserts renowned historian and former chairman of India Council of Historical Research, Prof. Irfan Habib, ” There wasn’t any historical character called Jodha Bai. It’s true that Akbar married Amber ruler Raja Bharmal’s eldest daughter but her name isn’t mentioned anywhere. And she was certainly not Jahangir’s mother. Even Jahangir in his memoirs (Tuzuki-i-Jahangiri) doesn’t mention anything about his mother’s side.”
Opinion of other historians:
Former President of Indian History Congress and chairman of History Department, Aligarh University, Prof. Iqtedar Alam Khan corroborates Habib’s version: ” It is only a Punjab historian Sujan Rai Bhandari, who in his book Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh mentions for the first time that the Amber Princess whom Akbar married was Jahangir’s mother. But even Rai doesn’t refer to her as Jodha Bai.” Medieval India , an NCERT (National Council for Educational Research and Training) history text book for Class XI by Satish Chandra clearly states on page 165: ” To strengthen his position, Udai Singh married his daughter, Jagat Gosain or Jodha Bai as she came to be called, to Akbar’s eldest son Salim (Jahangir(”
N.R. Farooqui, HoD of Allahabad University’s history department, confirms this when he says, ” Jodha was not Akbar’s wife but Jahangir’s and she was Shahjahan’s mother.”
The existing belief might have something to do with ‘Mughal-e-Azam’, where Durga Khote played Jodha Bai and also every guide at Agra will tell you Akbar’s wife was Jodha Bai. The existence of structures like Jodha Bai Ka Rauza in Fatehpur Sikri also confirms the existing belief. However this is a matter of political debate in Rajasthan, with various Rajput organisations taking the field against the former royal families of Jaipur and Kishangarh about exactly which Rajput princess married with Mughal emperor.
تشکر: ڈاکٹر سیف قاضی جنہوں نے اس کی فائل فراہم کی
تدوین اور ای بک کی تشکیل: اعجاز عبید